It is indigenous to Mexico and other South American countries. It is commonly known as Chiku and is primarily grown in India. Moreover, it is primarily used in the production of latex, which is used in the manufacture of chewing gums. In India, sapota farming is done mainly in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat. Also, sapota is grown on 65 thousand acres of land and produces 5.4 lakh metric tonnes per year. Its fruit is a berry with 3-5 black shining seeds.
Suitable Soil for Sapota Farming
It can be grown in a variety of soil types, but deep alluvial, sandy loam, and black soil with good drainage are ideal for sapota farming. In addition, a pH of 6.0-8.0 is suitable for sapota farming. Avoid growing in shallow clayey soil with high calcium content. Also, the only ground is not perfect for agriculture. We have to make it perfect with the help of good agricultural equipment like Powertrac 445 and others.
Popular Varieties for Sapota Farming
Kalipatti: In 2011, it was released. High yielding and high-quality variety with egg-shaped fruits and 1-4 seeds per fruit. Also, it produces an average yield of 166kg per tree.
Cricket Ball: In 2011, a cricket ball was invented. Calcutta Large, large round fruit, grainy flesh, and not particularly sweet. Also, it produces an average yield of 157kg per tree.
Chhatri is low quality compared to kali Patti but has great yielding variety.
Dhola Diwani: A high-yielding variety with egg-shaped fruits.
Baramasi is a popular variety in northern India, with round and medium-sized fruit and a 12-month yield.
Pot Sapota: Fruiting begins in the pot, and the fruit is small, egg-shaped, and has a sharp top. In addition, the fruit is very sweet and aromatic.
Other varieties grown in other states include Calcutta Round, Pilipatti, Murabba, Pala, Vavi Valsa, Baharu, and Gandhevi.
Well-prepared land is required for sapota farming. First, ploughing is done 2-3 times, followed by levelling to bring the soil to a fine tilth. Also, you should prepare land with excellent farming machines like Powertrac Euro 50 and others.
Planting takes place primarily between the months of February and March and between August and October. Planting is done with a 9m spacing. Moreover, sowing takes place in a 1m deep pit.
Intercropping with pineapple and cocoa, tomato, brinjal, cauliflower, peas, cucurbits, banana, and papaya is possible depending on climate and irrigation facilities.
For effective weed control, a pre-emergence application of Stomp@800ml/acre or Diuron@800gm/acre is made for the first 10-12 months.
In the winter, irrigation is done every 30 days, and in the summer, irrigation is done every 12 days. Drip irrigation is used because it can save up to 40% of the water. Also, during the first two years, two drippers are placed 50cm apart from the tree, and four drippers are set one metre apart until the tree is five years old.
Pest and their control:
The symptoms of the moth (Leaf Webber) are dark brown colour patches on the leaves. It eventually causes withering and drying of tree branches.
Treatment: A spray of Carbaryl@600gm, chlorpyrifos @ 200ml, or quinalphos@300ml in 150ltr of water is applied 20 days after the formation of new shoots or at the time of fruit harvest.
Bud worms: These are moth caterpillars that feed on vegetative buds and destroy them.
Treatment consists of spraying quinalphos@300ml or fame 20ml in 150 ltr of water per acre.
Hairy caterpillars: They wreak havoc on the plant by feeding on new shoots and twigs.
Treatment consists of spraying quinalphos@300ml in 150 ltr of water per acre.
Disease and their control:
Leaf spot: Deep purplish-brown spots that are white in the centre and round in shape can be seen. Also, long spots can be seen on the stems and petals of fruits and flowers.
Copper oxychloride is sprayed at a rate of 400gm per acre.
Heart rot (a fungal disease ) causes the wood in the trunk and branches to decay.
Treatment: Carbendazim@400gm or Z-78@400gm is sprayed in 150 ltr of water per acre.
Anthracnose: Deep sunken wounds of canker can be seen on stems and branches, and brown colour stains can be seen on leaves.
Anthracnose is treated by spraying copper oxychloride or M-45 at 400gm per 150ltr water.
Harvesting takes place between July and September. However, avoid picking unripe fruits. Harvesting is primarily done when fruits have faded orange or potato colour and fruits have a less sticky milky colour product that is easily plucked from the tree. Moreover, typically, a 5 to 10-year-old tree produces 250-1000 fruits.
Grading is done after harvesting, and storage is done at 20oC temperature for 7-8 days. By removing ethylene and adding CO2 at a rate of 5-10% in the storage atmosphere, we can extend storage life by 21-25 days. Also, after storage, cardboard boxes are packed and used for long-distance transportation.
For more details regarding farming tips and tricks, stay tuned with us. We will come up with another informative blog for you. It will help you to grow a healthy yield.