Pear is one of the significant fruit crops after the apple, and it is native to mildly & coastal temperate areas of the world. Pear fruit “Pyrus” genus and belongs to the family of “Rosaceae”. You can grow this fruit in tropical and subtropical areas. Pear fruit has climatic and wider soil adaptability. The pear tree can grow approximately 10 to 16 metres tall and is a medium size. This fruit thrives in Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, and Himachal Pradesh at 2000 to 2400 metres above sea level. Low chilling varieties are best in subtropical areas of India.
Pear Farming Process In India
Let’s examine the pear fruit farming process to learn about the essential factor.
Pear fruit adapts to various climatic conditions, growing as low as -27ºC and as high as 44ºC. The chilling period is different for each variety of pear. Spring frosts damage flowers, so lowlands should be avoided for their cultivation. Likewise, you should avoid the hail-prone areas affecting plants and fruits.
Farmers thrive the pear in rich soil with well-draining, deep and medium texture. It prefers relatively more clayey soil for better growth and yield. This crop can tolerate wet soil but not drought conditions. The optimum soil depth for good root growth and fruit production is 170 to 180 cm. Pears grown in deep soils give higher yields than those in shallow soils. This crop requires a neutral pH of 5.5 to 7.5 as iron deficiency appears on highly alkaline soils. Soils rich in nitrogen are not preferred for cultivating pear crops as these soils have the presence of pear sila and fire blight.
When preparing the soil, you should know a few key factors, such as what equipment you should use in pear cultivation. However, tractors play the main role as they must have the best ability to mount attachments. However, you can choose the Mahindra Yuvo 475 tractor that meets your needs and suits your budget.
Land Preparation and Planting
The land should be free of all weeds and other old stems and roots of already grown plants. Two ploughs are enough to till the soil well. You should level the ground in such a way that there is no stagnation of water. Usually, the layout system depends on the land topography and plant density. In general, the square and rectangular systems are followed. However, the contour system is followed in hilly areas. In pear fruit cultivation, planting distance depends on the variety, soil fertility, rootstock, training method adopted and the climatic condition of the area.
A pit of size 1 x 1 x 1 m should be dug. You should fill these pits with soil and well-rotted farm manure (FMY) or a mixture of organic manure and 25 grams of Aldrinor BHC dust. You should prepare the basin immediately after planting. The soil level should be slightly higher near the trunk than near the basin to avoid direct contact of water with the trunk. Remove the root sucker and any sprouts on the rootstock. You should give the water immediately to freeze the soil.
Training and Pruning
You should carry the proper pruning and training in pear fruit farming to maintain and spread the fruit growth evenly. However, farmers adopt the Central leader training system for the pear crop. You should develop 4 or 5 well-spaced limbs during the 3 to the 4-year stage and then head off the leader. In the pruning process, a certain amount of thinning of the sides extending outward and moving back is considered sufficient. Training and pruning are almost the same in both pear and apple.
Manures and Fertilisers
Normally a 10-year-old pear plant requires about 80 to 90 kg of well-rotted FMY. The full amount of P&K should be mixed with farm manure. If nitrogen is applied, apply 1/2 dose of N 21 days before flowering and the remaining half dose after fruiting. Sufficient zinc and ferrous sulphate should be used if the soil is deficient in iron and zinc. This may be done while preparing the soil or the ground.
You should irrigate the pits first to settle the soil. Then, you should give the water after planting. Then you should give the next irrigation to settle the soil. Subsequently, you should carry the irrigation on a requirement basis. For example, in heavy soils with high moisture, an upper level of 1 m is very important for tree growth and fruit development. On the other hand, you may require frequent irrigation in the case of light soils.
The loamy soil should have moisture at a depth of 1.5 m for better yield. In heavy rains, the water should not stagnate and be well-drained. Excessive moisture will affect the colour and quality of the fruits. The frequency of irrigation mainly depends on the moisture-holding capacity of the soil. You should irrigate the trees for 3 weeks after harvesting pears in July-August. Drip irrigation can be used in water problem areas.
Along with the relevant information on pear farming, you should also consider the tractor that will help improve the yield. Cultivators, Tillers and tractors are crucial factors in pear farming. However, you can choose the Mahindra Arjun 605 tractor while working on a large farm.
For further information regarding pear farming in India, stay tuned with us.