Fennel is a stout and fragrant plant crop that is commercially grown as an annual herb. Itis used in culinary (cooking) and tablets as well. Fennel belongs to the family of “Apiaceae” and the genus of “Foeniculum”. Fennel is a hardy herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. This plant is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become extensively naturalized in many parts of the globe. Fennel is a highly fragrant and flavorful herb that can reach up to 2.5 measures in height. India is the top generator of fennel bulbs in the world. One can get decent profits by selecting a wide yielding variety and supporting good farm administration practices for fennel seed goods.
Production Sates of Fennel in India
Fennel developed throughout India. However, the primary production states of fennel seed are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Telangana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Haryana.
Fennel Farming Required Climate
Fennel needs cool and dry climatic requirements for its best increase and yield. Therefore, a dry and cool climate during the seed set will result in seed yield and quality.
Fennel Farming Soil Requirement
Fennel crops can be grown in a wide range of soils. Still, black cotton soils and loamy soils containing lime are best for its farming. Soils having rich organic matter are best for high yield. Avoid shallow light soils as they are not suitable for fennel crop growth. While choosing the soil, make sure to have proper drainage. If you plan to commercialize fennel crops, getting a soil test is essential to manage any soil micronutrient needs. The optimum soil pH for fennel farming is 5.5 – 7.0.
Land Preparation in Fennel Farming
Land should be given 3 to 4 cultivating and get the soil to a delicate tilth stage. Add important matter like farm manure of 25 to 20 tonnes in a 1 ha field. Remove any weeds from earlier crops.
Fennel Farming Propagation and Sowing
Seeds do propagation of fennel. However, seeds can immediately sown in the field or raised on nursery beds and removed to the area. The best time for planting fennel is mid-September to mid-October. Avoid delaying the sowing, which decreases the yield of the crop. Generally, the seed rate needed for direct sowing is about 9–12 kg/ha. Plants should be taken out below in rows with a range of 45–60 cm apart.
Fennel Farming Manures and Fertilizers
Supplement the soil among 15 to 20 tonnes/ha of well-decomposed farmyard manure (FMY) during the land development. Then, apply 90 kg of N/ha in 3 equal separation applications; first as basal dose and 40 kg/ha of P2O5, second and third applications at 30 and 60 days after sowing the crop.
Fennel Farming Irrigation
First, watering should carried directly after sowing the seeds. Then, subsequent 1 or 2 light irrigations should taken until seeds start germinating. After this, the fennel crop should irrigated at an interval of 15 to 21 days. As flowering and seed development stages are critical for reliable yield and place, Proper moisture levels should maintained, and water stress should avoided. For better irrigation purposes, farmers choose the Mahindra 245 tractor model because of its durability in performance.
Weed Control in Fennel Farming
First, hoeing and weeding should be taken out after 1 month of sowing. Weed control is a critical exercise in fennel crop improvement. Weeds can controlled by both means of drugs and mechanical. When it comes to herbicides to control the weeds, Pendimethalin is most beneficial. Pendimethalin 1.0kg/ ha as Pre-emergence processing can be performed with one hand-weeding 45 days after sowing.
Fennel Farming Harvesting
The growth will be available for collection in 180 days (6 months) after sowing the seeds. Generally, harvesting should be carried by plucking the umbels when sources are fully developed and mature but still green. Usually, harvesting time lasts for a month, with plucking done twice or thrice at 10 to 12 days intervals. And for harvesting Mahindra Jivo tractor model is best because of its cost-effective price range.
Fennel Farming Post – Harvesting
After collecting the crop, it should dried under the sun for 1 or 2 days and in the cast for 8 to 10 days. Afterwards, washing and ranking the seeds should taken out. Jute bags can done to store dried seeds. As experts are prone to frost requirements, care should taken while taking the fennel seeds. Spray 0.1% water of sulphuric acid to prevent damage from the frost.
Fennel Farming Yield
The growth yield depends on the variety of seeds, soil variety and fertility, watering and crop control practices. On average, fennel yields about 10 to 11 quintal seeds/ha.
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