Soybeans are also called golden beans. Soybean, i.e. Glycine max, is an oilseed crop of the pulses family. Along with this, it is also called a miracle crop. On the other hand, soybean is called yellow gold. Farmers believe that there is benefit from soybean cultivation, there is less scope for loss in it. Along with this, we are showing some popular Soybean cultivation methods that will be more beneficial for you and provide profitable yield.
Nutrients Found In Soybean
Soybean grain contains 40-42 per cent high-quality protein and 18-20 per cent oil, besides 20.9% carbohydrate, 0.24 per cent calcium, 11.5 per cent phosphorus and 11.5 per cent iron. In addition, soybean contains 5 per cent amino acid called lysine.
Importance Of Soybean
Due to the presence of vitamins in soybeans, it is particularly suitable for making antibiotic medicine. Due to the abundance of protein and oil, it is used at the domestic and industrial levels. Soybean is such a food item that it is considered almost as complete as cow’s milk. It is used to prepare milk, curd and other food items. Due to the low amount of starch and high protein content in the seeds is a valuable food item for people with diabetes. Apart from this, vegetable oil-ghee, soap, printing ink, cosmetics, glycerin, medicines etc., are made. Soybean cake and husks are the best food for chickens and animals. Being a pulse, crop glands are found in its roots, installing atmospheric nitrogen, increasing the soil’s fertility.
Due to the diverse use and many characteristics of soybean, it is called miracle crop and miraculous pod. The utility of soybean pulses is more. Various dishes are made from it. But still, soybean products have not become more prevalent in Indian homes.
Suitable Climate For Soybean Cultivation
Soybean can be cultivated successfully in regions with a moderate to moderately warm climate. Soybean seeds germinate in 3-4 days at temperatures from 20-32 degrees Celsius. A temperature of 24-28 degrees is suitable for crop growth. However, too little or too much can adversely affect soybeans’ growth, development, and seed quality.
Suitable Land For Soybean Cultivation
Light soils with proper drainage are suitable for soybean cultivation. Soybean crops can be grown successfully in loamy, clay loam and black soils of high fertility cotton. The pH value of land is found to be 6.5 to 7.5 best. Dorsa and Kanhar land of Chhattisgarh is suitable for soybean cultivation. By mixing lime in acidic soils and gypsum in alkaline soils, the development of knots in its roots is good.
Improved Varieties For Modern Soybean Cultivation
There are many types of soybean varieties available in India. But we are here showing some popular Soybean varieties, which are js. 93-05, js. 72-44, J. S.-335, Ahilya-3, Ahilya-4, PK-472.
Methods Of Sowing Soybean
Soybean is sown by the sprinkling method, seed drill, or pits behind the country plough. Generally, soybean is buried by the sprinkling method. It is not a scientific method because, in this method, the plants are established at unequal distances, the seed is more, and there is an inconvenience in weeding and harvesting the crop. On the other hand, when sown behind a country plough or in a row with a seed drill, the seed is less, and the plants are established at the same distance.
A tractor or animal driven sewing machine (seed drill) is used for sowing in more areas. And Massey Ferguson 245 DI is best for this operation. After a week of sowing the crop, if there is no germination at any place in the trunk and there is moisture in the soil, then by sowing the seeds in the empty areas with the help of a scabbard, the desired number of seedlings is established in the field for good yield.
Irrigation Methods In Soybean Cultivation
Soybean is generally a rainfed crop, but irrigation becomes necessary if there is no rain for a long time. A good yield of soybean is given by 45-50 cm. Water is required. Flowering, fruiting, grain formation and grain development time in soybean are critical for water. In these stages, due to lack of water, flowers drop, pods are reduced, grain size is reduced, resulting in reduced yield.
In the event of prolonged drought, irrigation must be given at seed filling in the pods. Irrigation has to be done more frequently in sandy soils than in heavy soils. In the early stage of the crop, due to excessive irrigation, the vegetative growth of the plant’s increases. Due to which the plants fall to the ground, which reduces the yield. In case of frequent or heavy rains, it is necessary to make proper arrangements for drainage in the field.
Harvesting And Threshing Of Soybean Crop
Harvesting methods in soybean farming It takes 90-140 days, depending on the variety, for the soybean crop to be ready. When ripe, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. Harvesting should be done when the pods (90 to 95%) become brown or dark brown. At this time, the seed contains 15-18% moisture. On late harvesting, the pods start cracking, and the yield is adversely affected. Harvesting is done by sickle or combined harvester.
The harvested crop dried for 8-10 days by keeping it bale. After this, threshing is done by beating with sticks or driving with bullocks or by a tractor. And the Massey Ferguson 1035 DI tractor is more suitable for this operation. Do threshing carefully so that the seeds are not damaged because soybean seeds are soft. The greenness of soybean grains is due to chlorophyll and yellowing anthocyanin pigments.
We hope the above information about Soyabean cultivation will help be necessary for you. Furthermore, please be with us for more farm-related information.